By P. Müller
Zoogeography goals to give an explanation for the constitution, functionality and background of the geo graphical levels of animals. The absence or presence of a species in a given position has ecological in addition to old factors. it really is consequently a mistake to consider that reconstructing the phylogenetic connections of a taxon will on its own provide a distinct photograph of the way its variety originated. A in simple terms ecological interpretation of the variety may be both deceptive if it didn't keep in mind the population-genetic constitution underlying the geographical variety. Phylogenetic systematics, inhabitants genetics, autecology and synecology have all their very own equipment, none of which are substituted for one more, with out which a spread can't be studied or interpreted. the current ebook covers simply convinced elements of the huge box of zoogeo graphy. those are within the shape within which they have been crystallised during innumerable discussions with my academics, my colleagues at domestic and in a foreign country and my fellow employees, postgraduates and scholars at Saarbriicken, in addition to within the zoogeographical a part of could simple lectures on biogeography for the yr 1973-1974. the manager emphasis is laid at the genetic and ecological macro constitution of the biosphere as an enviornment for variety constructions and diversity dynamics, on city ecosystems, that have hitherto been grossly ignored, and at the most modern background of levels (the dispersal centre concept). The marine and fresh-water biocycles, nonetheless, were dealt purely briefly.
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These groups of islands however have so many peculiarities and phylogenetic connections with the Palaeo tropical Realm that simply placing them in the Australian Realm is not really appropriate for all groups of animals. 4. Neotropical South and Central America with the Antilles. 5. Archinotic Antarctic, south-western South America and south-western New Zealand. r~\ ~ oIOElPHloAE~ MAR~UPIAll~) (OHNE 0 '. ; .. \ ...... \.. ". ~<\.. , .. _..... •.. • ... -...... "'·f' . ~ MYRMECOPHAGloAE . -......
It arose during the Ice Age and its causes are essentially historical. The Johansen Line, on the other hand, is a contact region between Western and Eastern Palaearctic groups of animals (JOHANSEN 1955). It runs through the Fig. 29. The southern limits of North American families in Central America. j>. Kf D ~ Palaearctic elements in different mammalian orders of the Indian desert (after PRAKASH 1974) Mammal orders Species occuring in the Indian desert Insectivora Chiroptera Primates Pholidota Carnivora Artiodactyla Lagomorpha Rodentia 3 11 2 1 13 4 1 16 Total 51 Palaearctic species 3 4 Oriental species 7 7 2 1 4 2 1 9 25 26 9 2 Palaearctic % 100 36 69 50 44 49 Finally, at the southern tips of South America and New Zealand there are other areas transitional to the Archinotic realm - the 'Old South'. These transitional areas have recently been particularly well-established by BRUNDIN (1965, 1972) and ILUES (1965).
Aspects of Zoogeography by P. Müller
Palaearctic elements in different mammalian orders of the Indian desert (after PRAKASH 1974) Mammal orders Species occuring in the Indian desert Insectivora Chiroptera Primates Pholidota Carnivora Artiodactyla Lagomorpha Rodentia 3 11 2 1 13 4 1 16 Total 51 Palaearctic species 3 4 Oriental species 7 7 2 1 4 2 1 9 25 26 9 2 Palaearctic % 100 36 69 50 44 49 Finally, at the southern tips of South America and New Zealand there are other areas transitional to the Archinotic realm - the 'Old South'. These transitional areas have recently been particularly well-established by BRUNDIN (1965, 1972) and ILUES (1965).