By Professor Dr. Hermann Remmert (auth.)
A huge variety of accomplished guides has been dedicated to the Antarctic, to its plant and animal existence. it truly is accordingly quite effortless to familiarize oneself with the present country of Antarctic learn. not anything similar is obtainable for the Arctic. The heterogeneity and richness of the northern polar areas appear to have discouraged any test at a synthethic strategy. This e-book has advanced from an try and summarize the result of 15 years of ecological and physiological study paintings within the Arctic - totally on Spitsbergen. the need of evaluating our effects and the ecological stipulations of Spitsbergen with different arctic areas grew right into a full-sized booklet on arctic animal ecology. it isn't intended as an exhaustive survey ofthe appropriate literature. in its place i've got attempted to teach how heavily some of the fields of analysis are interwoven, what percentage questions might be solved if purely detect is taken of fellow scientists and their effects, and what sort of arctic animals have in universal. This booklet wouldn't have been attainable with no the helpfulness of many colleagues. particularly I should still wish to point out Professor Ronning and Professor Solem of Trondheim college (Norway), Professor Arnthor Gardasson of Reykjavik collage (Iceland), Dr. NettIeship, Dr. Oliver and Dr. Ryder of Canada and Professor West of Fairbanks collage (Alaska, USA).
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The tundra has constantly low temperatures during its short growing period. whereas in the Alps there are large fluctuations in temperature although the mean value is the same as in the tundra for the equally short growing period. Thus least growth is achieved in the tundra. The conditions in the stream also hold for the ocean. (After Remmert, 1972) plant food matter becomes less efficient, due to a drop either in the individual's own efficiency or in the activity of symbiontic micro-organisms.
Screen o M ro 00 W ~ m latitude temperature daily temperature --cycle ~ ro 0 Fig. 22. Magnitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations in July and mean July temperature at various sites at different latitudes. Partly based on short-term investigations and partly on values for only one year Temperature Conditions in the Arctic 25 1000 .. 800 >- ~ 600 .. 400 '"E ~ u 200 1,4 1,3 1,2 III E .. >. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Fig. 23. Insolation per day (upper figure) and per minute daytime (below) in the course of the year (abscissa) at different latitudes.
If the eggs were put into the incubator earlier than this the embryos died (Belopolski, 1957). These results are sensational, and the experiments should be repeated as soon as possible, although so far this has apparently not been done. Even if the eggs do not require, but merely tolerate, such temperature gradients it would be a remarkably interesting adaption to life under arctic conditions. The breeding behaviour of the ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) and the Antarctic snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea) requires further investigation.
Arctic Animal Ecology by Professor Dr. Hermann Remmert (auth.)