By Rob Johnson
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Additional info for A Region in Turmoil: South Asian Conflicts since 1947
The communal violence and the disputes over Junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir in 1947-8 highlight the divided nature of the subcontinent. Indian governments have tried hard to build a sense of national identity over strong regional and religious loyalties. Religious loyalties have proved one of the most poignant for India since Pakistan was built on a shared Muslim faith. In 1947, 40 million Muslims remained in India, and today the figure is well over 100 million, so it was clear to Nehru and to subsequent leaders that India had to be a secular state with a foundation of religious toleration.
Having said that, few of the richest nations could avoid the rate of growth of GNP in South Asia, some 4 per cent in India between 1976 and 1990. 12 Japan has assisted in car manufacturing and electronics, and the United States has also led on thigh tech' investment, mainly through the close links maintained by the 600,000 highly qualified Indians resident in America. In fact, the United States government has shown a lot less interest in South Asia than the high technology industries might suggest.
He argued that he favoured a more radical Islamic state with personal piety and scriprualism above social liberalism, although there is every indication that this was political expediency to legitimize his administration by pleasing the clerics. Indeed, Zia used his faith to define his nationalism. He told an International Islamic Conference: 'I will tell you what Islam and Pakistan means to me. It is a vision of my mother struggling on, tired, CON F l i e T SIN P A K 1ST AN, BAN G lAD E S H . '2 He also stated: 'the preservation of that [nationalist] ideology and the Islamic character of the country was ...
A Region in Turmoil: South Asian Conflicts since 1947 by Rob Johnson