By Fa Xian; James Legge
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Additional resources for A record of Buddhistic Kingdoms : being an account by the Chinese monk Fâ-Hien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in search of the Buddhist books of discipline translated and annotated with a Corean recension of the Chinese text by James
4 Like the ancient Greeks and Persians, however, British historians and administrators pioneered a monolithic definition of the subcontinent in reference to its geography, territory, religions, and history. ), who both made multiple efforts to unify India along with present-day Afghanistan, the subcontinent remained a vast region of varying natural, political, and ethnographic characteristics. Efforts to consolidate India certainly merit some attention, especially when its leaders such 26 The History of Pakistan as Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) and Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964) continuously attempted to retain a unified India, despite its cultural, religious, and political pluralism.
Nanga Parbat has killed more mountaineers than any other mountain in the world and its first successful assault was not possible until 1979. The first The Indus Heartland and Karakoram Country21 successful attempt of Nanga Parbat occurred in 1953 by a combined German and Austrian expedition. 8. The epicenter of the 2005 earthquake was in the town of Balakot, toward the south of the mountain and lying in the proximity of Muzaffarabad, the capital of Azad Kashmir. 9. The Line of Control (LOC) dividing Indian and Pakistani parts of Kashmir passes to the south of most of these glaciers, although Siachin is contested by both neighbors.
Pakistan’s civil service, consisting of various cadres, is selected through a complex system of merit and positive discrimination—called a quota system—to allow some representation to numerous underprivileged groups. Given the centralized nature of governance, bureaucracy at the higher levels remains quiet powerful, although the army is the strongest pressure group, and a small group of generals have traditionally made vital decisions on domestic and external matters. As shall be seen in subsequent chapters, Pakistan has periodically experienced military coups, but the blame has been routinely pushed on to politicians for poor administration and corruption.
A record of Buddhistic Kingdoms : being an account by the Chinese monk Fâ-Hien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in search of the Buddhist books of discipline translated and annotated with a Corean recension of the Chinese text by James by Fa Xian; James Legge