By Mary N. Arai (auth.)
Scyphozoa have attracted the eye of many sorts of individuals. Naturalists watch their sleek locomotion. Fishermen may well dread the swarms which may hinder fishing or consume larval fish. Bathers retreat from the water in the event that they are stung. humans from a few Asiatic nations devour the medusae. Comparative physiologists research them as almost certainly basic versions for the functioning of assorted structures. This ebook integrates info from these and different investigations right into a useful biology of scyphozoa. it's going to emphasize the big variety of adaptive responses attainable in those morphologically particularly basic animals. The e-book will be aware of the learn of the final 35 years, in part simply because there was a swift growth of information in the course of that interval, and partially simply because a lot of the former paintings was once summarized via books released among 1961 and 1970. Bibliographies of papers on scyphozoa have been incorporated in Mayer (1910) and Kramp (1961). Taxonomic diagnoses also are incorporated in these monographs, in addition to in a monograph at the scyphomedusae of the USSR released by way of Naumov (Naumov, 1961). so much impor tantly, a genenttion of scyphozoan staff has used as its 'bible' the monograph by means of F.S.Russell (1970) The Medusae of the British Isles. even with its restrictive identify, his e-book reports many of the details at the biology of scyphozoa as much as that date.
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Extra resources for A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa
E. , 1985). Gypsum is rare in biological systems, neverthless even in low sulphate sea water A. aurita does not utilize phosphate to form the more common calcium phosphate (Spangenberg, 1981). Rhopalia and the associated statocysts of A. aurita are first formed during strobilation (Spangenberg, 1968b, 1991). Metamorphosis can be induced by thyroxine, so that statolith synthesis in the lithocytes can be studied at will in culture (Spangenberg, 1967). The statoliths are formed in calcifying vesicles and remain within intracellular vacuoles when completed (Spangenberg, 1976).
He found that conduction depended on the presence of at least one of the large bipolar nerve fibres. He was also able to record conducted electrical impulses similar to those of higher animals. Subsequently examining this net over the muscles of A. , 1956b). However, these are the largest neurons known in the Scyphozoa. More recently it has been renamed the motor nerve net (MNN) by Anderson and Schwab (1982). The MNN has been examined most extensively in the preparation of the peri-rhopalial tissue epidermis of Cyanea capillata which was developed by Anderson and Schwab (1984).
2 11m. (Source: Anderson and Schwab, 1981. A. V. ) It is possible to record from both the cells involved in a MNN synapse and to verify that the synapses transmit in either direction. When an action potential reaches the synaptic terminal of a presynaptic neuron it causes an excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP) in the post-synaptic cell. There is a 1 ms delay, presumed to be due to the release and diffusion of a chemical transmitter. 14) (Anderson, 1985; Anderson and Spencer, 1989). Depolarizations of o m V or more are required for transmitter release, so transmitter is released only by action potentials, not EPSPs, preventing continuous depolarization of the terminals.
A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa by Mary N. Arai (auth.)