This guide discusses a number of structures and the apparatus (components or assemblies) they include, and describes beneficial properties and alterations. this knowledge is helping approach designers and operators in picking and utilizing apparatus. This variation features a new bankruptcy 18, Variable-Refrigerant-Flow platforms, which describes those structures, their parts, and appropriate criteria intimately, and contains a process layout instance and critical tips on charges, controls, and defense. This instruction manual is a reference for engineers operating in HVAC&R and for pros in allied fields. ASHRAE, based in 1894, is a global association of a few 50,000 individuals. ASHRAE fulfills its project of advancing heating, air flow, air con, and refrigeration to serve humanity and advertise a sustainable global via study, criteria writing, publishing, and carrying on with schooling.
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Additional resources for 2012 ASHRAE Handbook - Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment (SI Edition)
The equipment can be adjacent to the primary heating and refrigeration equipment or at considerable distance, with refrigerant, chilled water, hot water, or steam circulated to it for energy transfer. Figure 1 shows a typical draw-through central system that supplies conditioned air to a single zone or to multiple zones. A blowthrough configuration may also be used if space or other conditions dictate. The quantity and quality of supplied air are fixed by space requirements and determined as indicated in Chapters 17 and 18 of the 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals.
Some of this mixing is intentional, as at the outdoor air intake; other mixing results from the physical characteristics of a particular component, as when untreated air passes through a coil without contacting the fins (bypass factor). All treated and untreated air must be well mixed for maximum performance of heat transfer surfaces and for uniform temperatures in the airstream. Stratified, parallel paths of treated and untreated air must be avoided, particularly in the vertical plane of systems using double-inlet or multiple-wheel fans.
Space humidity requirements, lack of space for the required ductwork). Plant Controls. Direct digital control (DDC) systems should be considered for control accuracy and reliability. Temperature, flow, and energy use are best measured and controlled with modern DDC technology. Pneumatic actuation might be considered where torque or rapid response of power actuation is required; medium pressure [typically 200 to 400 kPa (gage)] is best, though electric actuation is more common. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) should be considered for larger central plants or where future expansion/ growth is possible.
2012 ASHRAE Handbook - Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment (SI Edition) by ASHRAE