By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
This instruction manual covers the refrigeration apparatus and platforms for purposes except human convenience. This ebook contains details on cooling, freezing, and storing meals; business functions of refrigeration; and low-temperature refrigeration. essentially a reference for the training engineer, this quantity can also be worthy for someone focused on cooling and garage of nutrition items. This variation contains new chapters: Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration platforms and Terminology of Refrigeration. additionally new for this quantity are bankruptcy order and groupings which have been revised for extra logical circulate and use.
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Additional info for 2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (I-P Edition)
Table 1 Refrigerant Data Refrigerant Number Refrigerant Group R-22 R-134a R-410A HCFC HFC HFC blend R-507A HFC blend R-717 R-744 Ammonia Carbon dioxide Chemical Formula CHClF2 CF3CH2F HFC-32 (50%) HFC-125 (50%) HFC-125 (50%) HFC-143a (50%) NH3 CO2 Source: ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34. 2 2010 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration Table 2 Comparative Refrigerant Performance per Ton of Refrigeration Fig. 269 Source: Adapted from Table 9 in Chapter 29 of the 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals. Conditions are 5°F and 86°F.
Alternatively a number of common stainless steel alloys provide adequate low temperature properties. 7 Fig. 6 Dual-Temperature Ammonia Cascade System Fig. 8 Dual-Temperature Ammonia (R-717) Cascade System LIVE GRAPH Fig. 7 Click here to view Refrigerants Water Solubility in Various Fig. 9 Water Solubility in Various Refrigerants (Adapted from Vestergaard 2007) Stainless steel, aluminum, and carbon steel piping require qualified welders for the piping installation. Pipe Sizing For the same pressure drop, CO2 has a corresponding temperature penalty 5 to 10 times smaller than ammonia and R-134a have LIVE GRAPH Fig.
In commercial applications system capacity influences design criteria; equipment options include brazed-plate, tube-in-tube, coaxial, shell-and-tube, and plate and frame heat exchangers. COMPRESSORS FOR CO2 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS Designing and manufacturing an efficient, reliable CO2 compressor represented a challenge that required extensive research to satisfy the complex criteria dictated by operating pressures that far exceed those found in conventional refrigeration compressors. Transcritical Compressors for Commercial Refrigeration In transcritical CO2 systems, the design working pressure exceed 1450 psig in air-cooled applications.
2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (I-P Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers